Wooden Architecture Open Trail. Lublin Region
One of the ways in which wooden architecture might be popularised is to establish a wooden architecture trail of the Lublin region. As part of this undertaking we invite you to look at elements of small town environments, such main squares, streets, quarters, but also individual objects: houses, churches. During the completion of the “Wooden Treasure. Preserving heritage, design future” project, we invite you to visit the following towns: Borowica, Chłopiatyn, Dubienka, Górecko Kościelne, Hrebenne, Kostomłoty, Krasnobród, Ortel Królewski, Szczebrzeszyn, Tomaszów Lubelski, Tyszowce, Wojsławice, Zaklików, Żulin.
Examples of wooden architecture in the Lublin region
Transfiguration of Our Lord parish church in Borowica was founded by Kazimierz Krasiński. It was built between the years 1797 and 1799. The church’s architect was Jakub Kunicki, the personal architect of Polish king Stanisław II August.
The church is an example of Classicism in architecture, a log-frame structure, set into an octagon shape. It has four shorter corner walls with two rectangular side buildings at the front and back, including the vestibule and sacristy. Inside the building is moulded into the shape of a Greek cross with its corners cut diagonally. The arms of the cross are made up of rectangular niches, three of which are altars and the fourth, a choir niche. The niches are flanked by Doric columns that support the framework. The columns are placed on stone plinths, with their main bodies made of wood. Each of the columns has been carved from a single larch trunk. The ceiling framework supports the church’s second floor. Between the niches of the nave and the corners there are four galleries open towards the inside of the church. The ceiling is flat, laid with beams in an imitation of a dome. The church decor is also an example of Classicism.
The architect has successfully introduced forms previously known from stone construction to the realm of wooden architecture. The church has no analogue in Polish wooden architecture.
The Holy Spirit Orthodox Church in Chłopiatyn was built for members of the Old Catholic Church and in 1875 was acquisitioned by the Orthodox Church. After World War II the church was handed over to the Catholic Church.
The Orthodox church in Chłopiatyn is a tripartite building with a single nave, crowned with three domes. All external parts of the church are three-story, with each floor separated by wide eaved parapets. Above the entrance there is a balcony. Below it is placed the church’s date of construction as well as the foundational inscription.
Inside the church there is a preserved iconostasis, procession banners and an altar dated to the end of the end of the 18th century. The walls are covered with polychromy showing saints surrounded by geometric and architectural motifs.
Among the 357 houses that existed in Dubienka in 1860, 346 were wooden and 11 made of stone. Until World War II, Dubienka was populated mostly by wooden buildings: single story objects with attics, or two-story with a low cellar. Wide-fronted houses with entrances facing the street had roofs covered with tiles, gable or hipped.
Unique to the town square was the type of house with so-called “drive-in entries”, and spread to other streets from 18th century onwards. This type of house, which had an entryway build in such a way as to allow a cart to enter, lent the centre of Dubienka its unique architectural style. A common features of houses in Dubienka were shingle-covered roofs and entryways that separated the living quarters from the pantry. Stone architecture arrived in the Dubienka town square once the populace’s material and economic conditions began to improve.
Today one of the most interesting wooden objects in Dubienka is a house located at No 1, I Armii Wojska Polskiego Street. It was build in 1926 by Icek Goldberg, the richest Jew in Dubienka, who dealt in wood trade.
The church was built in 1768 and founded by Jan Jakub Zamojski, then consecrated in 1778. Between the years 1897 and 1898 it was expanded by eight metres and had a tower added. Major renovations were undertaken in 1927, and the building was weatherboarded.
The church is made of larch wood, weatherboarded, and includes three naves. The main nave, placed into a rectangle, is supported by eight wooden columns and is slightly higher than the side naves. The inside is domed with a barrel vault made of wooden beams. There is a beam with a Baroque cross from mid-18th century placed between the presbytery and the main nave. The inside, designed between 1769 and 1779 by Jan and Jakub Mancher, is decorated by three Baroque altars and a Rococo baptismal font; there is also a preserved confessional with a painting of The Good Shepherd. The main altar includes a painting of the church’s patron saint, St Stanislaus, in a richly decorated frame, placed between the columns. The church appointments include many historic objects, most of which dating back to the 18th century, such as the procession float with a Blessed mother bas-relief, two figures of Christ as Man of Sorrows from the first half of the 19th century, a chair and two Baroque footstools, Baroque chalices, a reliquary in the shape of a monstrance, old prints from 17th and 18th centuries, and the story of St Stanislaus’ epiphany written on wood.
Opposite the main entrance to the church there is a belfry built in 1787, consisting of two stories. Approximately 200 metres from the church there are two chapels, the construction of which is tied to the epiphany of St Stanislaus.
Built as an Orthodox church between 1687 and 1700, partly renovated in 1882. Acquisitioned by the Catholic Church after World War II. From 1984 it carries out Eastern Orthodox church services. Hrebenne is also the seat of the Greek Catholic Church parish, part of the Przemyśl diocese.
The church is a single-area space split into three parts and has a log-frame structure. All external elements of the church are three-story, with each floor separated by a wide eaved parapet. Each element is covered with an octagonal dome with a lantern. Initially the building was covered with shingles. Next to the church there is a 17th century wooden belfry.
Inside there are preserved elements of a 17th-18th century iconostasis.
The church in Kostomłoty was built most likely in 1631 as an Old Catholic Church. In 1875 it was renamed an Orthodox church. In 1916 it was briefly abandoned. There is a decree from 1927 that returned the church to its original Old Catholicism. Since 1998 the church is a Podlasie Old Catholic Sanctuary.
The church was built into a rectangle, single-area space, log-frame structure, with a closed three-sided presbytery and a single-ridge roof. The western side includes a tower crowned with a signature-dome.
Inside, there is a preserved two-part iconostasis, 19th century tsarist entry doors and an icon of St Nikita surrounded by fourteen scenes from the life of the church’s patron.
The Water Chapel is placed where the Holy Virgin Mary manifested before Jakub Ruszczyk. This took place in 1640. The chapel is from the 18th century and was expanded in the 19th century. It consists of two smaller chapels connected with a shared multi-pitched roof. Inside there are two altars with 19th century paintings of the Blessed Mother of Krasnobród. There is a spring running beneath the chapel towards the river Wieprz; the water from the spring is believed to be holy. There are fifteen rosary stations in the chapel’s immediate surroundings.
The shrine to St Anthony of Padua was built in the 19th century. Inside there is a 19th century painting of St Anthony.
The next shrine, dedicated to St Nicholas and St Anna, is from the 19th century. Inside there is a painting of St Nicholas.
Another part of the chapel complex at the Najświętszej Marii Panny Alley is comprised of the shrine to St Onuphrius the Hermit. It is an 18th century building made of stone, laid out over the shape of four-leaf clover. Inside the chapel there is an 18th century figure depicting St Onuphrius.
The shrine to St Roch is located in the St Roch Zagórze forest preserve, approximately 2,5km (1,5 miles) from Krasnobród. Local tradition links this place to Maria Kazimiera Sobieska, who visited Krasnobród many times. The chapel has undergone in-depth renovations in 1935. Inside there is an altar with a painting depicting St Roch.
Other examples of wooden architecture in Krasnobród are located at the site of the old monastery.
The St David and Roman Old Catholic Church in Ortel Królewski is currently the Our Lady of the Rosary Catholic Church. The church was built in 1707 by a carpenter known as Nazar, in place of a previous church from 1660, named for the Protection of the Mother of God, which remains a part of the current presbytery. Above the church entrance there is a preserved inscription: “This Holy House was built by the carpenter Nazar, in the Year 1707 in the month of May, the 29th, by the effort of my unworthy hand, Teodor Bielecki, presbyter of this Church of God.” Between the years 1875-1919 the building was used by members of the Orthodox Church; since 1922 is has been used by the Catholic Church.
It is a wooden building with a log-frame structure made of larch beams tied into a swallow’s tail, weatherboarded. The shape of the building is its unique characteristic: it is comprised of a perpendicular nave, a presbytery covered with a tall hip roof, and crowned with an onion-shaped dome. The inner areas include a sacristy that is an extension of the presbytery, a treasury, and a domed two-story tower.
Of particular interest are the frescoes on the chancel arch inside the church, dating back to 1720.
Originally, the buildings in Szczebrzeszyn were wooden. In the 17th century, the only buildings layed with stone were objects of religious cult: Catholic churches, the Orthodox church and the synagogue, as well as the castle. In 1860, only 31 among 466 houses were made of stone. In 1888 the city had 448 houses, 54 of them made of stone. The city’s population was comprised mostly of tradesmen, farmers and factory workers. The main square had arcade houses with their gable ends facing the frontage. The buildings outside the main square were largely typical village shack houses.
Currently, individual objects from the inter-war period are located on the Klukowskiego and Cmentarna streets.
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Catholic Church was built between 1627 and 1629. It was founded by Tomasz Józef Zamojski. In-depth renovations took place in 1727, initiated by Michał Zamojski, the voivode of Smoleńsk. The church was renovated multiple times, most recently between the years 1990 and 1992.
The church in Tomaszów Lubelski is set out like a basilica, with a log-frame structure. It was built in the Baroque style and is made of larch wood on top of brick foundations. The church has three naves, a rectangular closed presbytery smaller than the naves, supplemented with a side sacristy and a stone treasury that is part of the extension of side naves. Above the sacristy and treasury there are chapels. The facade has two towers, with a two-story vestibule at the centre, crowned with a receding peak. Two three-story square towers with hip roofs, crowned with octagonal metal-plated domes, each with a lantern, spire and cross. The church has a metal-plated gable roof.
The inside of the church is split by two rows of arcade columns. The main nave, side naves and presbytery are affixed with false barrel vaults. The side naves contain chapels. There is a rood beam in an upwards arch, with a crucifix at the centre, figures of the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist, dating to the first half of the 17th century. There is an overhanging choir gallery with a protruding parapet at the centre and a Rococo pipe organ dating to approximately 1765.
The church appointments have come in part from the old Trinitarian monastery. The main Mannerist altar from the first half of the 17th century contains a holy painting of the Szkaplerzna Holy Mother with Child and the relics of St Felix. Additionally, there are four late Baroque side altars from the end of the 18th century; a sandstone baptismal font from the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries and a wooden one from the first half of the 18th century; one Baroque confessional from the first half and two Rococo ones from the latter half of the 18th century; an early Baroque pulpit with a canopy and a figure of the St Archangel from the first half of the 17th century; multiple 18th century paintings. The church includes crypts beneath the presbytery and treasury.
Next to the church there is a square wooden belfry dating back to the first half of the 18th century.
Originally the buildings in Tyszowce were exclusively made of wood; there were six stone houses existing only in 1827. In 1860 Tyszowce had four hundred wooden houses. The town square was characteristic for its arcade houses, both peaked and ridged, with unique facades of attics that comprised living quarters. The town also had guest houses with wide drive-in entryways. During the Nazi occupation the old wooden buildings were all completely destroyed.
Currently, examples of wooden architecture are located in the old Ostrów jurisdiction and the Dębin suburbia.
In 1508, Hieronim Zaklika Czyżowski in the Wojsławice edict of relocation decreed that butcheries, arcade houses and larders could be built in the area surrounding the town hall. Jan Górak argues that this edict is the inception of the arcade construction characteristic to the Wojsławice main square. The first, wooden town hall was destroyed in one of the several fires in the city’s history.
In 1860, Wojsławice had 38 wooden houses.
Wooden arcade houses in Wojsławice, placed lengthwise along the square, still existed in the inter-war period. From that period onwards they were gradually torn down and replaced with stone buildings. Yet until today there still exist several wooden arcade houses, located at the western frontage of the main square. These are so-called narrow-fronted houses, originally peaked, the style of which progressively eroded with successive renovations after city fires.
One of the preserved arcade houses located in Wojsławice is the building at No 59, Rynek, known as the house of Fawka the shoemaker. It was built circa 1925.
A reconstruction of the building is located in the Lublin Open Air Village Museum.
St Anna Church in Zaklików was built circa 1580, from larch wood, and was a filial church belonging to the Zdziechowice parish. In 1581 an almshouse was added next to the church, prompting the establishment of a parish school. Between 1585 and 1590, when the Zdziechowice-Zaklików demesne was taken over by Calvinist Marcin Gniewosz, the St Anna Church became the parish church.
The building has undergone multiple renovations, among others in the 19th century, when a vestibule and sacristy were added. Currently it is a cemetery chapel. The outer walls of the building are decorated with funerary tablets of dead parishioners. The hanging of funerary tablets on the walls of the chapel is a tradition dating back to the January Uprising.
The wooden Holy Mother, Queen of Poland Church in Żulin was built between the years 1906 and 1909, and was founded by an Orthodox heiress. Until 1875 in the same area, though not precisely the same place, there was a Greek Catholic church that was later made an Orthodox church. The Orthodox church was torn down in 1911, and the new church was given over to the Catholic parishioners in 1945.
The single-nave church was built in the shape of a Greek cross. Its central design is underlined by an octagonal dome that spans the intersection of the arms of the cross. There are two sacristies next to the presbytery, and at the front there is a tower with a vestibule. Worth noting are also the church appointments. The main altar, which includes a painting of the Holy Mother, Queen of Poland, is flanked by two columns which capitals were shaped into lotus flowers. The left-side altar includes a depiction of Mary holding the Child Jesus, standing on a gold background (the painting comes from an old Greek Catholic church). The right-side altar includes a depiction of the Resurrection of Christ. This altar is particularly interesting: its form is a visual reference to the construction of an iconostasis.
Text and photographic material taken from the educational brochure, “The Wooden Treasure”.