The “Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre” Centre is a local government cultural institution based in Lublin. It works towards the preservation of cultural heritage and education. Its function is tied to the symbolic and historical meaning of the Centre’s location in the Grodzka Gate, which used to divide Lublin into its respective Christian and Jewish quarters, as well as to Lublin as a meeting place of cultures, traditions and religions.

Part of the Centre are the House of Words and the Lublin Underground Trail.

The “Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre” Centre is a local government cultural institution based in Lublin. It works towards the preservation of cultural heritage and education. Its function is tied to the symbolic and historical meaning of the Centre’s location in the Grodzka Gate, which used to divide Lublin into its respective Christian and Jewish quarters, as well as to Lublin as a meeting place of cultures, traditions and religions.

Part of the Centre are the House of Words and the Lublin Underground Trail.

The well at the Lublin bus station

Suction lift  pumps with wooden pipes were being installed in wells in Lublin already since 1826, and in 1841 engineer of the province, Feliks Bieczyński began to endeavour to replace them with lift-and-force pumps with iron pipes. Count Andrzej Zamoyski’s Machines Factory in Warsaw, that by 1863 had installed three of such devices in municipal wells, accepted the commission. Pumps were meant to be equipped with flywheels and cranks.

After operation tests, the project was accepted for implementation: In the catholic city, where each of 8 wells is about 160 ft deep, suction lift pumps with flywheel and pump casing will be installed, whereas in the Jewish city, where all 4 wells are shallow - lift-and-force pumps are to be fitted.
Zamoyski’s factory also offered a standard design of the pump housing. In the city files from 1809-1874 period such design is kept, submitted by the factory in 1864, when the company was assembling the well on the market square, near the Świętoduska St. and Nowa St. (part of today’s Lubartowska St.) junction.

 

 

Location

The well is located in the central point of the PKS bus station, in the area of Podzamcze (Castle Grounds).

Function

Providing water for Czwartek suburb.

History

The area of the present-day bus station belonged to the Czwartek suburb, which, in 1865, was mentioned the following way:

Since the Czwartek suburb does not have a municipal well, the Government of the Lublin Province recommends the Municipal Council (...) creating a design of such well in this suburb and submitting it to the Provincial Government.

At the session no. 94 in 1865, the Municipal Council passed a resolution regarding construction of a brick well in Czwartek, along with installation of an iron pump. Shortly thereafter, the cost estimate, accounting for 1123 rubles, was accepted by the Council and public procurement procedures started.

The well was meant to be located near Ruska Street. The cost estimate attached to the files enumerates 1000 pcs. of well key bricks, 1000 pcs. of clinker bricks and a fathom of granite for cobbling of the area surrounding the pump housing.

Construction was designed to accommodate: iron pump made by count Zamoyski’s factory, with pipes, upright (...) with straight wrought-iron crank with gearwheel, sieve under the pipes and an iron pipe in the pump housing, not a copper one, as it is more vulnerable to frequent breakdowns - for 267 rubles 80 kopecks.

Unfortunately, design drawings of the well’s distinctive housing, made of clinker brick in an eclectic style of industrial buildings of the time, have not been preserved. However, according to the gathered information, construction of the well should be dated back to the year 1865.

The well is preserved almost in its original form. Distinctive was the slenderness of the pump housing, resulting from the fact that access to water was still free back then and the pump was operated by single person. It changed in the late 19th century and resulted in demand for bigger wells of different type.

Water was conveyed by a pipeline to the former municipal wells,  from where it was meant to be drawn using buckets and barrels. The old pump housing had been connected to the waterwork constructed by Ulen i S-ka in the 1920s and was used until the post-war years.

Since 1970 the well has been closed, with neither owner nor user, it was designated as “hovel intended to be removed”. Demolition was prevented by putting the well in the register of monuments on 30th september 1972 (under no. A/633).

In 1975 the bus station was designed by Railroad Projects Bureau in the form that still can be seen today. The well became property of the State Car Communication (Pol. Państwowa Komunikacja Samochodowa, PKS) and since then was used as a handy storehouse. In 1977 the PKS brought up the case of scraping the well due to its poor technical condition. Thanks to endeavours of city Historic Preservation Officer, 1980 saw repairs carried out by Monuments Maintenance Laboratory (Pol. Pracownia  Konserwacji Zabytków). Those works consisted in bricking up all gaps in the wall, constructing new tent roof and repairing the elevation, after removing remains of the outflow pipe and disassembling the waterwork devices inside.

According to the visual inspection protocol from 1987, the plinth was damaged again, which lingers until today.

Timeline

1865 - construction of the well

1970 - the well is no longer used and in danger of being scraped

1972 - the well is put in the register of monuments

1975 - construction of the PKS bus station

1977 - PKS applies for scraping the well

1980 - repairs carried out by the Monuments Maintenance Laboratory

Style

Eclectic, typical for industrial buildings of the time.

Description

Building that serves as the pump casing is 3.5 meters high, built of yellow facing bricks, laid out on a slender square. It is covered with a small copper hip roof with gargoyles. On the top, an iron sphere with a pennant is located.

Elevations are in form of a semicircular arcade, supported by pilasters flanking the corners, archivolts are locked with plain keystones.

Until 1980, semicircular apertures had been located under the arcades, leading into the slender vaulted interior. In 1980, the apertures were closed.

Above the arcades, there is a corrugated cornice, made of profile bricks, supported by corbels. Cornice is profiled in the area of walls’ coping.

Tent roof, with pinnacle and tennant on the top, was reconstructed in 1980.

Condition of the preserved well

1995

Building in good condition, with exception of damage to one corner of the plinth.

 

2009

Condition unchanged since 1995.

 

 

 

Author: Jadwiga Czerepińska
Additional information by Piotr Sugier
Edited by Monika Śliwińska
Translated into English by Jarosław Kobyłko

 

Literature on the subject

Czerepińska J., Zdrój na placu Dworcowym PKS, [w:] Czerepińska J., Michalska G., Studziński J., Katalog architektury przemysłowej w Lublinie, t. I cz. II, s. 143, maszynopis opracowany na zlecenie Państwowej Służby Ochrony Zabytków, Lublin 1995.

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