Larvik - the buildings of town in archival source materials
Within such a long time span as the one under discussion, many large changes will have occurred. Natural shorelines will have been filled out and built upon, roads will have been moved and fires will have wreaked havoc. In the 18 century there were four large fires in Larvik that consumed most of the core of the town. After further fires at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th stone replaced the traditional timber as the primary building material. The wooden town centre of Larvik was further affected by the rapid industrialisation from the mid19th century on, and by the later reshaping of the town’s infrastructure.
Today there are very few buildings left from the 17th and 18th centuries.
Wooden architecture in Larvik’s main street. P. Nyhus collection
- The buildings of Larvik in archival source materials: 1688–1767
- The history of the town of Larvik
- Land Books and the property map of 1688
- Probate records 1673–1690
- The buildings of Larvik in archival source materials: 1767–1820
- Local history
- Fire insurance assessments
- Maps and prospect drawings
- The buildings of Larvik in archival source materials: 1859–1921
- Maps and land registers
- Photographic material
The buildings of Larvik in archival source materials: 1688–1767
The town of Larvik has developed on land that was part of an estate in the former county of Brunla, growing in strength thanks to the aristocracy’s investment in commercial activities connected with forestry, as well as the production of timber and iron. By the second half of the 17th century, Larvik was established as a civic community, while the surrounding farms – lying on what was known as The Fresje Estate – were the property of Nils Lange, a Danish nobleman. His death in 1652 was followed by a long and complicated probate settlement, resulting in the king’s granting Norway’s viceroy, Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, permission to buy the estate. On 26 September 1671 the estate was elevated to the status of a countship for Gyldenløve and his successors.
«Veue de la Ville et du Cha‑ steau de Larwick Marquisat de S.E. Monsieur de Guldenlew».
Drawing of the town of Larvik and the count’s residence presumably after a sketch made during the French ambassador’s visit in 1685. Bibliotiotheque Nationale in Paris
Considered purely as a town, Larvik had much in common with other expanding civic centres in Norway at that time, but legally it held a unique position thanks to the Count’s privileges and its status as his residence. According to the statutes for the countship issued on 27 February 1692, anyone wishing to engage in commercial activity within the town, had to live on the land that was the Nanset estate ‘and which is Laurvig proper’. Tenant farmers, workers at the sawmills and the iron foundry, sailors and fishermen were required to make their homes in other parts of the town – at Torstrand, Langestrand, Bakken, Trollesletten and Halsen1.
A map from 1688 showing Larvik’s oldest urban areas. Created by Peter Jacob Wilster (1661–1771), probably commis‑ sioned by Count Gyldenløve. NRA KBK 48 Riksarkivet
The buildings making up Larvik are first mentioned in 1749.
Prospect drawing of Larvik’s urban areas from their western side towards the east, dated approx. 1740.
The drawing has an inscription behind: “Laurwigen” and “M. Blumenthal”.
Photographed by prof. Olaf Klose in Kiel 1976. Repr. by G.Ch. Wasberg and E. Nord. “Ett med sin by”, Larvik ward 1976, p. 23
“The town had a pleasant location by the sea with houses along the shoreline and between the surrounding hills. Nearest the shore there were boathouses, and behind these were the finest and largest houses along the main thoroughfare. Behind these again were smaller houses built up on the slopes and here and there among the hills”2. The streets were not paved with cobblestones, only sand, with an occasional stone slab in front of a house entrance. The houses were built of round, interlocking timber logs which were mostly left unpainted and without panelling. There was a small garden attached to most properties. Two storey houses dominated along the high street, with large rooms and windows set in wooden frames. The church stood at the eastern end of the town, while the vicarage – built, as was the church, in stone – was adjacent to the Count’s ‘palais’, a large timber building surrounded by a sizeable garden. At the western end of town was the iron foundry at Langestrand. Here the church was constructed from timber.
The history of the town of Larvik
In the first volume of Larviks historie – the official account of the town history (1923) – Larvik is described as the Count’s town and as an important port connecting Norway with the Continent. In the harbour one would often find Danish, Swedish, German, Dutch and English ships and many Larvik people travelled out into the world3. There is scant information about the buildings of Larvik before the 1760s, but there is one reconstruction map that shows the parts of the town that had been developing since the 1620s4.
Map based on sources from 1746–1747, shows parts of the town that have been devel‑ oping since the 1620s.
Langeland, S.T. ed., 1953. Larviks historie, vol. 2 and 3. Larvik, p. 145
Storgaten and Stenene were described as ‘the proper Larvik’ in documents dealing with the extent of the Count’s lands and privileges.
Residensen was the private residence of Viceroy Gyldenløve, a large estate comprising houses, a garden and cultivated areas. The property lay outside the town limits and defined the boundary where ‘the proper Larvik’ met the adjoining area of Torstrand.
Torstrand lies on land that formerly constituted the estate of Fjellsnes, later acquiring the name of Torstrand.
Vestre Halsen was an extension of Torstrand, with a ferry crossing over to Østre Halsen in Tjølling.
Fritsøebakken was initially known simply as Bakken (The Hill), but later became known as Fritsøebakken or Fritzøebakken.
Trollesletten, the settlement north of Fritsøbakken, is not mentioned in written sources before 1688.
Langestrand (Lange Beach) has probably derived its name from the powerful Lange family who from 1623 to 1670 owned the area and much of the land on which the town developed.
Much of the local history has to be derived from two important sources that offer insights into the buildings of Larvik and other physical structures: the so called Jordebøkene (Land Books) – and probate records.
Land Books and the property map of 1688
Between 1687–1688 a new registration of all properties in Larvik town was carried out. These first registers were known at the time as ‘Land Books’. The purpose of the registration was to establish who was obliged to pay land rent. The Land Book of 1687 was penned by Claus Røyem, bailiff in the Countship of Larvik from 1675 to 16875. He had noticed that many properties had been vacated and many new ones had been added, and therefore they needed to be registered. In 1687 the high street of the town, Storgaten, had 42 properties, followed by Øvregaten (including Stenene) with 38, Fritsøebakken with 30, Langestrand with 23, Torstrand with 27, Vestre Halsen with 11 and Østre Halsen with 6 properties6. In 1688, Røyem was succeeded by Johannes Mogensen who carried out a new registration in the same year, supplementing it with a map. The number of properties on Storgaten has now risen to 497.
The Land Book included, as a minimum, the size of every property and its stretch of shoreline, and for most part also the measurements of the actual house and garden(s). In some instances, every building on the property has been measured. The properties on Storgaten have been described in most detail, properties in other parts of town less so.
The supplementary map shows Storgaten, Stenene, Residensen and Torstrand. All the properties there are numbered and cross referenced to a list of owners’ names written on the map itself8. This map must have been the point of departure for a coloured map drawn by Peter Jacob Wilster, probably at the behest of Gyldenløve9. Compared to the property map, this version shows a more detailed topography, together with roads, gardens and in some instances the position of buildings on the property.
Town map of Larvik from 1688. The Regional State Archives in Kongsberg
Probate records 1673–1690
Public probate was introduced in Norway around the mid17th century. In towns the probate process was administered by the town bailiff and magistrate, the town clerk writing the probate records and deeds of conveyance. To all intents and purposes this system remained in practice until the Inheritance Act of 31 July 1854. Public probate was only mandatory in cases where the deceased’s next of kin were under age, absent or abroad, or when there was no next of kin. Widows and widowers often received a dispensation allowing them to reside in the property, or could avoid the probate process if the couple had drawn up a mutual will. The oldest preserved probate records come from 1656. In the period that followed, there was a succession of new regulations governing the way the probate process should be recorded and authorised, indicative of the fact that the process was not always being properly conducted. The records are registered in the same uniform manner. Time, place, the deceased and the heirs are recorded first, followed by inventories of various types of property from furnishings and goods to real estate, with their estimated values, as well as a list of unpaid debts. Probate costs, outstanding taxes, etc. were subtracted from the sum before the remaining assets were divided among the heirs10.
With these probate records as source material, the authors of the official town history have determined that the high street had the following general description: first there was the beach, where timber was collected; then came the main house; together with two or three outhouses this formed a square courtyard; directly behind these was the garden11.
The buildings in other parts of town are not mentioned, other than to illustrate the social hierarchy of the town, divided ‘in a straight and descending line from the Count’s residence to the cottages of the workers’. What the houses looked like and what they contained was not only determined by the owner’s income, but also by the varying character of each part of town. Merchants lived on Storgaten – the town’s axis and finest neighbourhood. Above Storgaten was Stenene, where craftsmen lived. The iron foundry and sawmill were located between Fritzøebakken and Langestrand, so it was in these parts of town that the workers lived. There were also many workers living at Torstrand and Vestre Halsen. The officials and functionaries lived on Storgaten, close to the burghers, as did some of the sea captains and first mates. Seamen and tenants were spread around all parts of the town12.
For our purposes, the question is whether or not the probate records give us information that is systematic and detailed enough to be applied to a digital reconstruction of the town around the year 1690.
Of the probate records for the period between 1675– 1720, 169 probates contain information about buildings13. Of these, 46 are from Laurvigen (Storgaten), 45 from Stenene, 24 from Fritzøebakken, 7 from Trollesletten, 11 from Langestrand and 36 from Torstrand. With the aid of the 1688 map, as well as census details and the land books, it has been possible to localize 34 of the probates from Laurvigen, 11 from Stenene and 14 from Torstrand. For Fritzøebakken, Trollesletten, Langestrand and Halsen there is no applicable map and it is therefore impossible to determine where the properties were located. It is however possible to make a tentative reconstruction using prototypes of the category of properties that would have been there according to their recorded value, later town maps and our accumulated knowledge of where the various demographic groups made their homes. In the records there is a description and an evaluation of ‘the home or main buildings with their full furnishings such as they now are, including all secured fittings’, but also other buildings such as a brewing house, barn, stables, sheds, etc., as well as a garden and, where applicable, a stretch of shoreline.
Not surprisingly, the probates with the largest assets are for properties on Storgaten, where 30 out of 36 probates have an evaluation between 200 and 1500 riksdaler (rdl.), with most concentrated between 400 and 700 rdl. In Stenene, there are few probates from the first period, but there was a veritable flood of them after 1690. This may be accounted for by the fact that civic officials were admonished for not following the letter of the law when documenting properties in their land books. For Stenene there are records of many probate processes as the 18th century progresses. In Langestrand, Trollesletten and Fritzøebakken the reverse is true, although there is an increase of recorded processes for Fritzøebakken towards the end of the period. With regard to the number of probates carried out and their value, it seems that Torstrand and Stenene are relatively similar, although there were more affluent properties in various locations there. We can provisionally conclude that the well documented areas are Storgaten, Stenene and Torstrand.
The buildings of Larvik in archival source materials: 1767–1820
In 1790, Oluf Christian Olufsen (1763–1827) travelled to Norway to study Norwegian nature, agriculture and agricultural economy. His travel letters were published the following year in the periodical Minerva14. He describes Larvik as a fairly large market town with many impressive timber houses:
‘[…] there are timber buildings that have already housed three generations, and yet still appear as good as new. Pinewood does not rot so quickly when kept dry with a layer of wooden panelling, as is the custom here. An unpanelled house does not last half as long. Paint also preserves the timber; but this is the preserve of the affluent. Larvik’s inhabitants also deserve praise for their good taste. […] The most common colours in use are brown, blue grey or white with green window frames, which give the town a tidy and clean appearance. There are 400 houses in the town. The terrain is very uneven and steep hills rise up in the middle of the town, on the sides of which fine houses have been built’.
A watercolour dated 1785 by an unknown artist illustrates Olufsen’s appraisal of the town. The artist must have been familiar with the town, for its different quarters, most important buildings, industries, quays and roads are geographically correct. The colours are also in accord with Olufsen’s description.
A prospect drawing of Larvik from 1785. Unknown artist. Larvik Museum
If we compare this image with the description from 1749, then we recognise that the topography and the salient features of the town are the same, but 50 years on the houses are now panelled and painted, and there are more of them. The expansion and concentration of housing has taken place to the north of the town, behind Storgaten, following an extension of the town limits in 1747.
There also exists a drawing made by a later visitor to Larvik, the Dano Norwegian officer, land surveyor and architect Jørgen Henrik Rawert (1751–1823). His drawing from 1809 is seen from the top of Langestrand in the west towards the administrative centre of the town, which was spared by the town fire of 1792. Some of the houses have clearly been enlarged, probably in the wake of an economic boom enjoyed by many of the inhabitants during the Napoleonic Wars.
A prospect drawing from 1809 by the Danish artist Ole Jørgen Rawert (1786–1851). Shows the view of Larvik and the harbor from Langestrand.
Det Royal Library, København
In 1769 a national census was carried out in Norway, arriving at the sum of 2154 inhabitants for Larvik, including Fritzøe Ironworks and Langestrand. The ‘proper’ Laurvig, Torstrand, Fritsøbakken, Trollesletten and Vestre Halsen had 1751 inhabitants. Fritzøe Ironworks and Langestrand had 403. This indicates that the population of Larvik was still growing, but the pace of growth had decelerated considerably. For the 1801 census the streets of Torstrand were included in the Larvik count, although Torstrand only officially became part of the town after an extension of the town limits on 3 August 1805. Langestrand came under civic jurisdiction following a decree of 13 march 1819 and a land survey of 18 September 182015.
In Larviks historie there is a useful account of the 1760s, based on the oldest fire insurance assessment from 1767.
Fire insurance assessments
On 18 August 1767 Den Almindelige BrandforsikringsIndretning for Bygninger (The General Fire Insurance Policy for Buildings) was established by royal decree. The institution was governed by the state administration in Copenhagen until 1814, and from 1912 adopted the title Norges Brannkasse (The Norwegian Fire Bank, a fire insurance company). The background for its instigation was the crown’s economic responsibility for compensation after large town fires. With the establishment of Norges Brannkasse, responsibility was assumed by the new institution. Membership in the scheme was compulsory for house owners in towns and an evaluation was carried out every ten years. An annual tax was levied on every property and went into a reserve of funds to cover compensation in cases of fire. Local assessors were selected from upstanding burghers of the town who had to have adequate knowledge of building techniques and be able to write. Before they could begin their work, the assessors had to be approved by the town magistrate or bailiff. A new List of Assessments was written each year, and adjustments and additions were constantly made throughout the year. Thanks to this painstaking effort, there exists today detailed archival information about the civic buildings of Norway from 1767 and every decade up to 1942, when Norges Brannkasse ceased operation. Researcher Helena I. Erikson has made a study of fire insurance assessments as a source of information about the economic history of Tønsberg from 1797 to 1807, and she has noted that these documents are a relatively neglected source material. One of the reasons for this may be that there is such a huge amount of material to explore and process. Building historians have more readily investigated fire insurance assessments, though primarily in the study of individual properties16.
Fire insurance assessment was carried out in Larvik similarly to the rest of the country. The town was divided into wards and the assessors went from house to house, making their evaluations and assessing the insurance status of each property. It was an extensive undertaking that included residences, outhouses, business premises and boathouses. For the fire assessment of 1767 Larvik was divided into five wards, in which there were 317 properties with a collected value of 143.890 rdl. On the basis of a 1747 Countship decree on the town limits, Langestrand and the Ironworks were not included in the assessment, while Trollesletten, Fritzøebakken and Torstrand, including Halsene, were already at this point regarded as parts of the town17.
A prospect painting from about 1820 which shows the central part of Larvik with Storgaten and Stenene. Unknown artist.
Larvik Museum, photo by M. Wolday
In Storgaten there were 42 properties with an insurance assessment between 1000 and 2000 rdl., and sometimes as much as 3000 rdl., but there were also lesser properties with a value as small as 300 rdl.18 There were still some 17th and 18th century properties that were not painted, or even panelled. Some freestanding houses, especially boathouses, had been tarred. As a general rule, residences were panelled and painted red, yellow, blue or green (fig. 9). Red and yellow was in preponderance, but blue and green was not uncommon. Along Storgaten and down to the church, the properties were markedly similar and consisted of three or four buildings, sometimes more, around a square courtyard, and most had an orchard or kitchen garden. The whole property was surrounded by a fence. The residency itself faced the street. This was built in two storeys with 3 to 5 rooms on each floor. There was a kitchen with a chimney and most rooms had an iron stove. Under ground level there was one or more cellar rooms. A brewing house, baking oven and laundry room were collected in one or two separate buildings, which might also contain the horse stables, the hay loft and the carriage house. In the garden there might be a henhouse and other huts and sheds. Shorefront properties would also have boathouses and sheds for fishing tackle. Over time, more properties were added to this area, with an ever improving standard, particularly after the fire of 1792.
The houses in Stenene – the area behind Storgaten – were of lower standard and had an insurance assessment from 250 rdl. to 20 rdl. A house valued at 20 to 50 rdl. comprised a living room with an iron stove, a kitchen with a chimney and a lean to or separate woodpile shed. Even on such relatively simple properties there was generally a garden and a surrounding fence. A house valued at 70 to 400 rdl. would usually have 2 to 5 rooms as well as a kitchen and a cellar. If there were fewer rooms in the main house, they would be compensated for in free standing buildings including a brewing house, baking oven and sometimes a barn and a henhouse.
If painted, the houses in this area were most often red, less commonly yellow; but more often than not they were neither painted nor panelled. Sometimes they had a wooden roof, very rarely covered with roof tiles.
Torvet and Trollesletten had a better standard of housing. Around Torvet (the market square) the residences of several merchant burghers were similar to those along Storgaten. Houses of craftsmen living near Torvet lacked the large outhouses.
Trollesletten was densely housed with small dwellings for sawmill workers and craftsmen. Most houses were unpanelled and many comprised a living room with an iron stove and a kitchen with a chimney. Most were however a little more spacious – with a loft and a cellar, and free standing buildings, including a barn, a wood shed etc., were not uncommon. Many had a garden with an enclosing fence, too. In Saggaten there was a small hospital serving the town of Laurvig.
Torstrand was also populated with people of the working and lower middle classes. Apart from a few larger properties valued at 250 to 400 rdl., most fell into the range of 40 to 150 rdl. As a rule, the houses were panelled and painted red, or left unpainted. A few houses were tarred. The smallest houses comprised only a living room with an iron stove and a kitchen with a chimney19. The documentary evidence provided by the fire insurance assessments offers us a highly detailed picture of the town’s buildings which, for the purposes of making a digital reconstruction, are very useful down to the level of each ward of the town, sometimes down to the level of each street and even – in the case of Storgaten, Stenene and parts of Torstrand – down to the level of every property.
Maps and prospect drawings
In addition to the probate records, land books and fire insurance documents, we find valuable evidence about the buildings of Larvik in the 17th and 18th centuries in maps and prospect drawings. Unfortunately, there are no maps of the town from the period between the property map of 1688 until the survey and land register of Captain Jacob Rørdam in 1821–1822. On this map the town centre with Trollesletten, Fritsøbakken and Langestrand have been included, but not Torstrand20.
Map showing the border between the Larvik city and country district around 1820. Designed by Captain J. Rørdam.
The town plan remained remarkably stable, so that the 1821 map can be utilised retrospectively – allowing for the changes brought about by the town fires of 1712, 1749 and 1792. In some instances it is also possible to make a direct connection between a drawing and the archival sources, as for example with Rawert’s drawing from 1809.
As far as Langestrand is concerned, there is a map of the Ironworks from 1774 and a map of the commercial area from 1802 that also includes housing development. A prospect drawing from ca. 1800 also forms a solid basis on which to make a reconstruction of the Ironworks – including housing, industrial buildings, roads and other structures – in the period from 1760 to 1800. Neither the foundry nor the residential area was affected by fire in this period.
Larvik bay with Lang‑ estrand (west) and further Storgaten and Larvik Church (east) designed by Peter Frederik Wergmann in 1836. Larvik Museum
The historical maps have been georeferenced by the Geodata Department of Larvik Municipality. This has made it possible to follow the development of properties in the town as it changed and grew, as well as allowing us to identify the properties in relation to present day digital maps.
The buildings of Larvik in archival source materials: 1859–1921
For the task of making a digital reconstruction of Larvik town around 1900, we have a rich and diverse set of source materials. In addition to the primary and secondary written sources, there are maps, photographs, films, property registers, development plan drawings, architectural drawings as well as the existing buildings, street environments and topography.
Maps and land registers
Our present day digital map of the area forms the foundation for the reconstruction. On this basis one can project the territory in 3D. Several town maps supply the information on housing, street plan and topographical factors: the town map surveyed in 1873– 1874 with corrections from 1879 (scale 1:1000)21; the 1884 map of Laurvig by N.S. Krum in accordance with the Municipal Map Authority (scale 1:2000); and the map of Larvik published by Krum’s Surveying Office in 1903 (scale 1:3000)22. On the 1873–74 map, street names have been included as well as the land register number of each property. In 1882 the Larvik Town Council changed the name of several streets and public places, and these are introduced into the map of 188423. In 1886 a new land register was commissioned, ‘The Land Register for the Town of Laurvig 1886’24. This register is a key tool for the identification of properties, because they were for the first time identified by their street name and house number rather than land register number25. In addition to the published register, the Municipality of Larvik established its own Land Register. This contained the address and house number of every property, the old land register number, the time at which the survey was carried out, the dimensions of the property and the name of the owner. Properties that have been added since 1886 have been entered into the register up to modern times26.
The 1873–1874 map with its later corrections, as well as the town maps of 1884 and 1903 have been georeferenced by the Geodata Department of Larvik Municipality. Georeferencing makes it possible to follow the development in properties and the changes taking place in the town up to 1900, and at the same time identify these properties on our present day digital map. In the period in question there were two large fires in Larvik – in 1884 and 1902. By comparing maps from before and after the fires, it is possible to reconstruct the properties existing in Larvik around 190027.
In addition to the aforementioned sources, registers, maps and drawings from 1860 and later periods are archived at the Office of the Civic Engineer, the Town Planning Office and the Larvik Building Council. It is here that we have the possibility to further add to the existing details of the town’s development around 190028.
Panoramic image of Larvik around 1865. In the foreground – 18th and early 19th century wooden buildings of the Langestrand area. Larvik Museum
In addition to the maps, photographs and films provide invaluable evidence of what Larvik looked like around 1900. The first known photographs of Larvik date from the period between 1859–1870. This handful of precious images reveals the character of the town before the large infrastructure projects made necessary by the construction of a steamship harbour and the railway29.
Several photographers established studios in the town at the end of the 19th century, and cameras became more common in better off families. There is therefore a steadily growing number of photographic images of the town, including panoramic views, street views and images of individual properties. Larvik Museum has a relatively large collection of photos taken by both professional and amateur photographers around 1900. Together with the maps of the period, they offer a solid visual foundation for a digital reconstruction of parts of Larvik.
The main street in Larvik, approx. 1866, showing the wooden architecture which was rebuilt after the huge fire in 1792. Larvik Museum
The largest collection of the photos of Larvik is the museum’s own collection and The Per Nyhus Photo Collection. Larvik Museum’s photo archive is an effect of many years of collecting that started in 1916 with the work of the Larvik and District Museum Association, which was transferred to Larvik Museum in 1995. It contains private black and white images and postcards as well as negatives from professional and amateur photographers. The Per Nyhus Collection was assembled by journalist Per Nyhus during his work at the local newspaper Østlandsposten since 1969, and today numbers some 5000 images of the town and district.
Larvik harbor with the old wooden boathouses next to the Skottebrygga and the custom officer’s house.
Larvik Museum – Vestfoldmuseene
The originals had been borrowed from local people and reprinted in the newspaper’s series ‘From Times Gone By’. As far as has been possible, the places and dates captured in the images of both collections have been identified. In addition to these two collections, which are administered by the Larvik Museum, there are also photographs of Larvik in the collections of the Vestfold Museums’ member institutions and in the private archives of professional photographers working in Larvik around 190030.
- Photographer Jacob Emanuel Ludwigsen: acquired Thea Nilsen’s studio in 1898. The studio was probably established in 1890.
- Photographer Anna Hansen: acquired the studio of her husband Andreas Hansen in 1888, originally established as Lundes Atelier in 1873.
- Photographer Anna Bergaust. In 1909 she acquired the studio that Thea Nilsen had started in the 1890s, and which had since been owned by Grundtmann (1896) and Ludwigsen (1898)31.
- Tor Buaas postcard collection. Postcard views of the town were popular early in the 20th century and were mass produced. The images were often street views or panoramas of the town. For the purposes of the reconstruction, postcards have been borrowed from one collection32.
Wooden architecture in Larvik’s main street. P. Nyhus collection
The film ‘Byen vor’ (Our Town) was created for the 250th anniversary marking the foundation of the town of Larvik in 1921. The film had its first showing at the opening of the ‘Munken’ cinema on 20 September 1921. Although produced 21 years after 1900, it offers several panoramas of the town and interesting insights into what the town looked like – including the street environments around the harbour and several of the town’s old housing areas. The film has been digitalised by The National Library33.
Aina Aske (the period between 1688–1767)
Gro R. Stalsberg (the period between 1859–1921)
Article from the book:
Drewniany Skarb. Chroniąc dziedzictwo, kreujemy przyszłość. Podsumowanie projektu
/ Wooden Trasure. Preserving Heritage, Design Future. Project Conclusion,
red./ed. P. Kowalczyk, Ośrodek „Brama Grodzka – Teatr NN”, Lublin 2015.
1 O.A. Johnsen, ed. 1923. Larviks historie ca. 1750‑1814. In: Larviks historie, vol. 1, Larviks historie indtil 1814. 2nd edition. Larvik, p. 161.
2 Tank R., 1934. Fra Vestfolds byer ar 1743. Vestfoldminne, 1. hefte. Tonsberg: Vestfold historielag, pp. 20–23.
3 A. Helland, 1914. Norges land og folk, Topografisk‑ histori‑ skbeskrivelse av Jarlsberg og Larviks amt, vol. 3. Kristiania, p. 235.
4 E. Blix. Larvik 1700–1750. In: O.A. Johnsen, ed. 1923. Larviks historie ca. 1750‑1814. In: Larviks historie, vol. 1, Larviks historie indtil 1814. 2nd edition. Larvik, p. 145.
5 O. Rian, 1980. Vestfolds historie. Tønsberg: Vestfold fylkeskommune, p. 46.
6 The National Archive (Kongsberg, Jarlsberg og Larvik). A Grevskapene II Larvik. 12 Byen, Faste eiendommer, 1 Jordebøker Oppmålinger 1671–1782.
7 O.A. Johnsen, ed. 1923. Larviks historie ca. 1750‑1814. In: Larviks historie, vol. 1, Larviks historie indtil 1814. 2nd edition. Larvik, p. 249.
8 The National Archive (Kongsberg, Jarlsberg og Larvik). A Grevskapene II Larvik. 12 Byen, Faste eiendommer, 1 Jordebøker Oppmålinger 1671–1782.
9 Observation by researcher and civil architect Lars Jacob HvindenHaug.
10 R. Fladby, 1990. Norsk historisk leksikon. 2nd edition. Oslo–Gjovik 1990, s. 295.
11 E. Blix. Larvik 1700–1750. In: O.A. Johnsen, ed. 1923. Larviks historie ca. 1750–1814. In: Larviks historie, vol. 1, Larviks historie indtil 1814. 2nd edition. Larvik, p. 132.
12 Ibid., pp. 152, 153.
13 www.arkivverket.no/arkivverket/Digitalarkivet Vestfold, [accessed: 26.01.2015].
14 O.Ch. Olufsen, ‘Breve fra Norge’ in Minerva, January, February, March, 1791 (J.F. Schultz, Kiøbenhavn 1791).
15 O.A. Johnsen, ed. 1923. Larviks historie ca. 1750–1814. In: Larviks historie, vol. 1, Larviks historie indtil 1814. 2nd edition. Larvik, p. 246, 253.
16 H.I. Erikson. ‘Branntakster som kilde til okonomisk historie og geografi’. In: Vestfoldminne. 2007/2008, p. 24–26.
17 The National Archive (Kongsberg), Larvik magistrat, Branntakstprotokoller 1767–1944.
18 Ibid., p. 255 f.
19 Ibid., p. 275–280.
20 Both documents are in the archive of the Municipality of Larvik. The register has recently been transferred to The National Archive in Kongsberg.
21 F.M. Hesselberg, 1920. Kjopstaden Larviks kommunalpo‑ litik og byens ledende mand 1671–1874, 1875–1896 og 1896–1910. Larvik: Jarlsberg og Larviks Amstidende, p. 219.
22 Larvik Municipal Map archive, Geodata section.
23 Vestfoldmuseene, Larvik Museum Archive, Sager behan‑ dlede i Laurvigs kommunebestyrelse 1881, sak 3/1882, p. 16.
24 The National Archive (Kongsberg), Larvik sorenskriveri, Matrikkel for Larvik by, 1886.
25 Vestfoldmuseene, Larvik Museum Archive, Sager behan‑ dlede i Laurvigs kommunebestyrelse 1886, sak 23/1886, p. 59.
26 Larvik Municipal Map archive, Geodata section.
27 Larvik Municipal Map archive, Geodata section.
28 Archive of the Municipality of Larvik, Interkommunalt arkiv, IKA, Kongsberg.
29 A. Aske and G.R. Stalsberg, 2008. Drommen om en havn. Larvik: Larvik Museum, p. 80, 81. The first steamship quay was built in 1862, then expanded in 1876, the railway station opened in 1881.
30 Vestfoldmuseene IKS, Photo archive.
31 The National Library. Register of Norwegian photographers and photo collections: http://www.nb.no/pm_old/fotograf. php?sok=1&navn=&foedt_ut, [accessed: 26.01.2015].
32 Tor Buaas Postcard Collection, private collection.
33 The National Library. Film, Byen vor, 1921
Aske, A. and Stalsberg, G., 2008. Drømmen om en havn. Larvik: Larvik Museum.
Aagaard, A., 1906. Larvik og omegns industri og næringsliv. Christiania: A.M. Hanches forlag.
Berg, Chr.J., 1838. ‘Breve angaaende Laurvigs Grevskab’ i Samlinger til det norske Folks Sprog og Historie VI. Christiania.
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Buaas, T., 1986. Gamle prospektkort fra Larvik og omegn. Larvik: Larvik og Omegns Museumsforening.
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Helland, A., 1914. Norges land og folk, Topografisk ‑historiskbeskrivelse av Jarlsberg og Larviks amt, vol. 3. Kristiania.
Hesselberg, F.M., 1920. Kjøpstaden Larviks kommunalpolitik og byens ledende mænd 1671–1874, 1875–1896 og 1896–1910. Larvik: Jarlsberg og Larviks Amstidende.
Johnsen, O.A., ed. 1923. Larviks historie, vol. 1, Larviks historie indtil 1814. 2nd edition. Larvik.
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Langeland, S.T., ed. 1953. Larviks historie, vol. 2 and 3. Larvik.
Larvik kommune. Matrikul for Laurvigs by 1886. Larvik: L. Schmidts bogtrykkeri.
Sophus, Historisk tidsskrift for Larvik, 1(2004). Larvik: Larvik Museum.
Mikkelsen, J., 2012. Urbanisering og bysystemer i Europa indtil ca 1800 (Dansk center for byhistorie).
Nyhus, P., 2008–2010. Larvik før og nå, vol. 1–3. Larvik: Østlands Posten.
Nyhus, P., 1981. Den gang det het Laurvig. Larvik: Østlands Posten.
Olufsen, O.Ch., 1791. Breve fra Norge. Minerva, January, February, March. Kiøbenhavn: J.F. Schultz.
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The National Archive (Kongsberg, Jarlsberg and Larvik, Grevskapene).
Larvik Municipal Archive, Interkommunalt arkiv i Kongsberg (IKA).
Vestfoldmuseene IKS avd. Larvik Museum’s Photo Archive.
Per Nyhus Photo Collection with commentary.
Cuttings books from the series «Fra svunden tid» (‘From Times Gone By’) from Østlandsposten. 19 volumes. Started in 1969, contain 1426 articles.
Larvik kommune. Sager behandlede i Laurviks kommunebestyrelse 1882.
Larvik kommune. Sager behandlede i Laurviks kommunebestyrelse 1886.
The National Library. Register of Norwegian photographers and photo collections: http://www.nb.no/pm_old/fotograf. php?sok=1&navn=&foedt_ut, [accessed: 26.01.2015].
The National Library. Film, Byen vor, 1921.