The “Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre” Centre is a local government cultural institution based in Lublin. It works towards the preservation of cultural heritage and education. Its function is tied to the symbolic and historical meaning of the Centre’s location in the Grodzka Gate, which used to divide Lublin into its respective Christian and Jewish quarters, as well as to Lublin as a meeting place of cultures, traditions and religions.

Part of the Centre are the House of Words and the Lublin Underground Trail.

The “Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre” Centre is a local government cultural institution based in Lublin. It works towards the preservation of cultural heritage and education. Its function is tied to the symbolic and historical meaning of the Centre’s location in the Grodzka Gate, which used to divide Lublin into its respective Christian and Jewish quarters, as well as to Lublin as a meeting place of cultures, traditions and religions.

Part of the Centre are the House of Words and the Lublin Underground Trail.

Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904–1991) – ENGLISH VERSION

 
Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904 - 1991) was born 14 July 1904 in Leoncin near Warsaw, Poland. He was the son of rabbi. His name was Icchok. The eminent writer. Literary Nobel Prize winner. Most of his works he wrote in Yiddish. Much of his work is associated with memories of Polish, which he left before the World War II. He died on 24 July 1991 in Miami, Florida.

Family

Icchok's parents, Bathsheba Zylberman and Pinkas Mendel Singer were married in Biłgoraj in 1889. His father was ferved Chasidism follower, and his mother was a daughter of the rabbi of Biłgoraj.

Their children as recognize that God had mixed types of setting up a father in heaven, man, woman and mother, not vice versa.

They called their perfectly discordant pair.

Icchok had three siblings. His oldest sister Ester Hindełe became a writer.  She changed her name to Esther Kreitman.

His older brother,  Israel Joshua become eminent Jewish writer.

Mosze , his youngest brother, become Hassid. 

Childhood

When Icchok, called Iciełe, was 3, his family moved to Radzymin. His father become a teacher in the yeshiva. They lived there for a short while.

They moved to Warsaw in 1908. Iciełe was little, red-haired kid with fair skin and shining, blue eyes. He resemble his grandmother -  Chania Zylberman. Unreadable writing and drawing was his favorite activity. 

Krochmalna

The Singer family lived on Krochmalna 10 street in Warsaw. Pinkas Mendel did not speak Russian, so officially he could not be rabbi. He was “unofficial rabbi” for residents of houses in the Krochmalna street.

Bathsheba, beauty and well-educated woman did not put up with living in Warsaw and the role of being rabbi's wife. Icełe, little kid was spending a lot of time on the balcony. It was view of the poor part of the town.  There was loudly market place. Joyful cry and Jewish songs was heard. Singer house was poor and modest, almost unfurnished. Father room was empty. There were only books.

There was two beds in bedroom. Icchok remembered this house was more house of God, than man.

Krochmalna world of his woka sorce of inspiration.

Biłgoraj

In 1917 Bathsheba with her sons, Icchok and younger Moshe, went to Biłgoraj, to her parents  (Chana Zybelman and Jacob Mordechaj Zybelman) home. Jacob Mordechaj Zybelman was already dead. Icchok was 13 years old.

This was ten thousand town inhabited by about three and a half thousand Jews. When he lived in Biłograju listened to many stories of miracles and demons. This city has become a prototype of Jewish sztetla. It was a world of non-civilization, with no sewage system and electricity.

He was meeting very pious Jews, who prayed three times a day according to the daily ritual of their religion. After the end of World War I, the mother of his youngest son left to “Dzików”. His father, Pinkas  took over the office of Rabbi. Icchok remained in Biłgoraj. Between 1918-1920 he started writing poems and short stories in Hebrew. he began work as a teacher. In Biłgoraju remains to be the beginning of the twenties.For a few months is going to the parents. Then he went to Warsaw, where Israel Joshua  returned after his stay at the Union of Soviet. To cope with his religious parents expectations he joined to Rabbi School. But he has not start his studies.

The origins of creativity

In 1924 he begins work as a proofreader in the "Literarisze Bleter", a literary magazine published in Warsaw in Yiddish. Translates into Yiddish songs Knut Hamsuna, Stefan Zweig and Thomas Mann. On his debut in the magazine story in 1925, the language ijdisz Ojf the elter (For old-age). In the same year it was rewarded a prize letter in which it was published.

He begins to write under a pseudonym Icchok Bashevis, derived from the name of the mother Batszeby. His works also appear in the journal "Di Jidisze Welt" and "A mole in a jojwl" and newspapers' Hajnt "and" Undzer Express. "

In 1932, together with Arone Cejtlinem begin write, ephemeral wrote in Yiddish, "Globus". There he published his first novel - “Satan in Goraj”, which appears in installments.

Book is published at 1935. It is the only Bashevis novel published before the war in Poland. 
Emigration
In 1935 he left Warsaw.  He followed his brother and emigrated to New York. There, he wrote his most famous novels: “Performer from Lublin”, “Heritage”,  “Szosza”; “Manor”. In the same year he started work in the Jewish newspaper “Forwerts”. In 1964 Bashevis became a member of American Institute of Art and Literature. 

Association of Jewish Writers and Journalists

Icchok was very fond of literature. His staying in Biłgoraj let him know about the province, including his traditions and superstitions. And what's more his brother,  Israel Jehoszua Singer

enabled Icchok to experience bohemians of this period – artists, writers gathered  in the Association of Jewish Writers and Journalists. The Union was established in the yard at the street Tłomackie 13. Was located near the Great Synagogue. This space Icchok called a "temple of Yiddish literature." Founded after World War I, enjoyed a successful relationship. Each important Jewish writer was a member of this association. Despite the secular nature, the Union reminded “sztibl”, tiny Hassidic temple. He meet there H.D. Nomberg, Perec Markisz, Aron Cejtlin.

Awards

Isaac Bashevis Singer was awarded often. In 1970 Bashevis won the prestigious National Book Award prize for creativity for children. For the second time, but for the lifetime achievement award this year was in 1974. In 1975 he received the title of Doctor honoris causa, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The year 1978 brought him the Nobel literary prize. So far the first and the only writer from the creators of the Yiddish language, which has received this award.

Work

The writer has delivered a dozen novels and collections of short stories, as part of the original Icchok Bashevis, the rest of the translations to English. In place of extensive cover story. According to the most criticism in the narrative is revealed to the mastery of the writer. Specific gained fame in tone kept telling folk tales, where reality mixes with fantasy, tradition and modernity, with a deep faith, blasphemy, horror with humor, good and evil, and people are living in an extraordinary world ruled by a seemingly supernatural phenomena.[3] Much of his work is linked to memories of the Poland. Lost play, the Jewish world, from the time before. Inspiration of literature often attributed to the streets of Warsaw and Biłgoraj, Krochmalna. 

Novels: Satan in Goraju (1933 - published in installments in the "Globe", 1935 - issued as a book in Yiddish, 1955 - translated in English); Sinful Messiah (1935-1936 - published in installments); Muszkatów Family (1945-1948 - published in installments in "Forwerts, 1950 - published in book form in both the Yiddish language and in English. This is the first novel by Isaac Bashevis Singer published in English.) “Performer of Lublin” (1959 - published in installments in the" Forwerts, 1960 - translated into English), The Slave (1962), Manor (1967); Heritage; Enemies. History of Love (1972), The Office of my father; Szosza (1978), Love and exile (1984), The Story of King Field; Certificate (1992), Shadows on the Hudson River (1997); skimmings (1991); Meszuge (1994);

Stories:

My father's rabbinical Board (1956); Spinoza from the street market and other Stories (1961), Short Friday (1963); Spiritualistic session and other Stories (1968); Kawki's Friend (1970), A crown of feathers and other stories (1973); passions (1975); Late Love (1979)

Stories for Children (1984), Ghost and other stories (1985)

Matuzalema's death and other Stories (1988) 

The last years of life

Over the last years of life suffering from illness, which entailed the memory loss. And lived memory (...) When I lost it, gone. [4]

Isaac Bashevis Singer died on 24 July 1991 in Miami, Florida. He was eighty seven years.
 
 
 Karolina Kryczka, Urszula Hasiec
 

 

Przypisy

[1] Tuszyńska A., Singer. Pejzaże pamięci, Gdańsk 1994, s. 25.
[2] Adamczyk – Garbowska M., Wstęp [w:] Isaac Bashevis Singer, Grosik na raj i inne opowiadania, Warszawa 2001, s. 6-7.
[3] Adamczyk – Garbowska M., Wstęp [w:] Isaac Bashevis Singer, Grosik na raj i inne opowiadania, Warszawa 2001, s. 5.
[4] Tuszyńska A., Singer. Pejzaże pamięci, Gdańsk 1994, s 11.